Dr Radheshyam Chaudhari


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Male Infertility

Male Infertility

Male infertility refers to the inability of a man to impregnate a woman due to factors related to his reproductive system. It is a condition where the man has a reduced ability to conceive a child with his female partner. Infertility can be either primary, where the man has never fathered a child, or secondary, where he has fathered a child in the past but is unable to do so again.

Diagnosis of male infertility usually involves a comprehensive medical history, physical examination, semen analysis, hormone testing, and sometimes additional diagnostic procedures like genetic testing or imaging studies.


There are various causes of male infertility, which can be categorized into three main types:

  1. Sperm-related issues: Problems with sperm production, function, or delivery can contribute to male infertility. These issues may include:

    • Low sperm count (oligospermia): When the semen contains fewer sperm cells than normal.
    • Poor sperm motility (asthenospermia): When the sperm cells have difficulty moving or swimming properly.
    • Abnormal sperm shape (teratospermia): When the sperm have abnormal morphology, affecting their ability to fertilize an egg.
    • Azoospermia: Complete absence of sperm in the semen, which can be due to blockages, hormonal imbalances, or testicular problems.
  2. Testicular factors: Conditions that affect the testicles can lead to male infertility. These include:

    • Varicocele: Enlargement of veins within the scrotum that can affect sperm production.
    • Testicular trauma: Injury to the testicles, which can result in reduced sperm production or function.
    • Undescended testicles: When one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum, it can affect fertility.
    • Testicular cancer: Certain types of testicular cancer and their treatments can impair sperm production.
    • Genetic disorders: Certain genetic conditions, such as Klinefelter syndrome or Y chromosome microdeletions, can cause infertility.
  3. Hormonal and other factors: Imbalances in hormone levels or other health conditions can also contribute to male infertility. These factors may include:

    • Hormonal disorders: Conditions like hypogonadism or hyperprolactinemia can affect testosterone production and sperm production.
    • Infections: Some infections, such as sexually transmitted infections or urinary tract infections, can impair fertility.
    • Chronic illnesses: Conditions like diabetes, kidney disease, or certain autoimmune disorders can impact sperm production or function.
    • Medications and treatments: Certain medications, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgeries may affect fertility temporarily or permanently